BACS – Bayesian Approach to Cognitive Systems

Integrated Project conducted under the Thematic Priority: Information Society Technologies – Sub-topic: Cognitive Systems

Project duration: 01/01/2006 – 28/02/2010
Contract no: FP6-IST-027140
Project web page:



Our role in the BACS project was focused on EEG correlates of cognitive signals using Bayesian techniques. It is our aim to exploit real-time single trial recognition of these processes for a rich interaction with intelligent devices.  This results in the development of semi-autonomous  systems, in which an intelligent device (i.e., a Bayesian-based artificial cognitive system) is able to interact with a human user who provides corrective signals in order to improve the controller’s performance (i.e. Human in-the-loop). To attain this goal, we should be able to recognize EEG signals that convey useful information related to the system’s performance. Such information reflects user’s cognitive states such as error-recognition, anticipation of relevant events, alarm, as well as feedback related-psychophysical responses.



Error awareness in semi-autonomous systems

We focus the research on charaterizing error-related EEG potentials in interactive applications (Chavarriaga and Millán, 2010). Moreover, several experiments in conjunction with ETHZ, Zürich towards the design of artificial Bayesian controllers that reliably integrate Human-generated monitoring signals for navigation. This experiments include several user studies oriented to optimize the methods used to interpret the human monitoring signals, as well as the decisions made by the autonomous robot (Perrin et al., 2008, 2010). Experiments using multiple feedback modalities, as well as real and simulated robots were successfully performed.

Anticipation of future events

Following our work on characterization of anticipation-related potentials, we developed probabilistic techniques that achieve fast, reliable classification in single-trials. Furthermore, a first on-line implementation of an anticipation-based Brain-Computer interface was successfully implemented (Garipelli et al., 2008, 2009).

Decision making – Exploratory behavior

We study EEG correlates of exploratory behavior in decision making tasks. Following previous works using fMRI, we study human decision-making in a gambling task using several slot machines. In this task the subject’s decisions are taken either to obtain the highest payoff (i.e. exploitation) or to gather more information of the environment and improve future predictions (e.g. exploration).

We have shown that it is possible to discriminate between exploratory and exploitative behavior from EEG signals (Bourdaud et al., 2009). This was achieved by building behavioral models of decision making and novel classification algorithms for asynchronous EEG correlates. Furthermore, we explore new techniques for the analysis of these signals (Chavarriaga et al., 2008).

Journal Articles


P. S. Iyer; L. O. Mavoungou; F. Ronzoni; J. Zemla; E. Schmid-Siegert et al. : Autologous Cell Therapy Approach for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy using PiggyBac Transposons and Mesoangioblasts; Molecular Therapy. 2018-04-04. DOI : 10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.01.021.
T. T. H. Pham; P. Rossi; H. D. K. Dinh; N. T. A. Pham; P. A. Tran et al. : Analysis of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the effluent of an intensive shrimp farm (Long An, Vietnam); Journal of Environmental Management. 2018. DOI : 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.089.


I. Delgado-Martinez; M. Righi; D. Santos; A. Cutrone; S. Bossi et al. : Fascicular nerve stimulation and recording using a novel double-aisle regenerative electrode; Journal Of Neural Engineering. 2017. DOI : 10.1088/1741-2552/aa6bac.


S. Balasubramanian; F. M. Wurm; D. L. Hacker : Multigene expression in stable CHO cell pools generated with the piggyBac transposon system; Biotechnology Progress. 2016. DOI : 10.1002/btpr.2319.
S. Balasubramanian; Y. Rajendra; L. Baldi; D. L. Hacker; F. M. Wurm : Comparison of Three Transposons for the Generation of Highly Productive Recombinant CHO Cell Pools and Cell Lines; Biotechnology And Bioengineering. 2016. DOI : 10.1002/bit.25888.


S. Balasubramanian; M. Matasci; Z. Kadlecova; L. Baldi; D. L. Hacker et al. : Rapid recombinant protein production from piggyBac transposon-mediated stable CHO cell pools; Journal of Biotechnology. 2015. DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.03.001.
B. M. Morrison; A. Tsingalia; S. Vidensky; Y. Lee; L. Jin et al. : Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush; Experimental Neurology. 2015. DOI : 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.10.018.


H. Wutzel; F. H. Richter; Y. Li; S. S. Sheiko; H.-A. Klok : Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] nanogels by RAFT polymerization in inverse emulsion; Polymer Chemistry. 2014. DOI : 10.1039/c3py01280h.


D. Ley; N. Harraghy; V. Le Fourn; S. Bire; P.-A. Girod et al. : MAR Elements and Transposons for Improved Transgene Integration and Expression; PLOS ONE. 2013. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0062784.
K. Gopinath; C. Venclovas; T. R. Ioerger; J. C. Sacchettini; J. D. McKinney et al. : A vitamin B-12 transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Open Biology. 2013. DOI : 10.1098/rsob.120175.
A. Marino; P. Peschke; F. De Gregorio; P. Leyland; P. Ott et al. : High Voltage Pulsed DBD Effects on the Aerodynamic Performances and on the Shock Buffet; ERCOFTAC Bulletin. 2013.


E. Smith; S. Claudinot; R. Lehal; L. Pellegrinet; Y. Barrandon et al. : Generation and characterization of a Notch1 signaling-specific reporter mouse line; Genesis. 2012. DOI : 10.1002/dvg.22030.


R. Duvoisin; M. A. Ayuk; G. Rinaldi; S. Suttiprapa; V. H. Mann et al. : Human U6 promoter drives stronger shRNA activity than its schistosome orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni and human fibrosarcoma cells; Transgenic research. 2011. DOI : 10.1007/s11248-011-9548-0.
M. Matasci; L. Baldi; D. L. Hacker; F. M. Wurm : The PiggyBac transposon enhances the frequency of CHO stable cell line generation and yields recombinant lines with superior productivity and stability; Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2011. DOI : 10.1002/bit.23167.
I. T. Aydin; F. Beermann : A MART-1::Cre transgenic line induces recombination in melanocytes and RPE; Genesis. 2011. DOI : 10.1002/dvg.20725.


M. Friedli; I. Barde; M. Arcangeli; S. Verp; A. Quazzola et al. : A systematic enhancer screen using lentivector transgenesis identifies conserved and non-conserved functional elements at the olig1 and olig2 locus; PloS One. 2010. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0015741.
R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán : Context-Aware Brain-Computer Interfaces; PerAda Magazine. 2010. DOI : 10.2417/2201006.003009.
R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán : Learning from EEG Error-related Potentials in Noninvasive Brain-Computer Interfaces; IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 2010. DOI : 10.1109/TNSRE.2010.2053387.
X. Perrin; R. Chavarriaga; F. Colas; R. Siegwart; J. d. R. Millán : Brain-coupled Interaction for Semi-autonomous Navigation of an Assistive Robot; Robotics and Autonomous Systems. 2010. DOI : 10.1016/j.robot.2010.05.010.


E. Chevallier; L. Ledercq; J. Lelong; R. Chatagnon : Dynamic noise modeling at roundabouts; Applied Acoustics. 2009. DOI : 10.1016/j.apacoust.2008.09.009.
G. Garipelli; R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán : Fast Recognition of Anticipation Related Potentials; IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2009. DOI : 10.1109/TBME.2008.2005486.


N. Bourdaud; R. Chavarriaga; F. Galán; J. d. R. Millán : Characterizing the EEG Correlates of Exploratory Behavior; IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 2008. DOI : 10.1109/TNSRE.2008.926712.
F. Murisier; I. T. Aydin; S. Guichard; S. Brunschwiler; F. Beermann : Expression from a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the Dct gene locus; Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 2008. DOI : 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00449.x.


F. Murisier; S. Guichard; F. Beermann : Distinct distal regulatory elements control tyrosinase expression in melanocytes and the retinal pigment epithelium; Developmental Biology. 2007. DOI : 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.11.038.


F. Murisier; S. Guichard; F. Beermann : A conserved transcriptional enhancer that specifies Tyrp1 expression to melanocytes; Developmental Biology. 2006. DOI : 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.05.011.
F. Beermann; K. Kaloulis; D. Hofmann; F. Murisier; P. Bucher et al. : Identification of evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements in the mouse Fgf8 locus; Genesis. 2006. DOI : 10.1002/gene.20177.


P. Brodin; K. Eiglmeier; M. Marmiesse; A. Billault; T. Garnier et al. : Bacterial artificial chromosome-based comparative genomic analysis identifies Mycobacterium microti as a natural ESAT-6 deletion mutant; Infection and immunity. 2002. DOI : 10.1128/IAI.70.10.5568-5578.2002.


S. Rocchi; F. Picard; J. Vamecq; L. Gelman; N. Potier et al. : A unique PPARgamma ligand with potent insulin-sensitizing yet weak adipogenic activity; Molecular cell. 2001. DOI : 10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00353-7.


J. Zhu; G. Islas-Gonzalez; M. Bois-Choussy : Recent progress in isolation, bioactivity evaluation and total synthesis of diarylheptanoids; Organic Preparations and Procedures International. 2000. DOI : 10.1080/00304940009355948.
R. Brosch; S. V. Gordon; C. Buchrieser; A. S. Pym; T. Garnier et al. : Comparative genomics uncovers large tandem chromosomal duplications in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur; Yeast (Chichester, England). 2000. DOI : 10.1002/1097-0061(20000630)17:2<111::AID-YEA17>3.0.CO;2-G.


B. Wagner; G. I. Gonzalez; M. E. T. H. Dau; J. Zhu : Total synthesis and conformational studies of hapalosin, N-desmethylhapalosin and 8-deoxyhapalosin; Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 1999. DOI : 10.1016/S0968-0896(98)00208-9.
J. Zhu : Recent developments in reversing glycopeptide-resistant pathogens; Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 1999. DOI : 10.1517/13543776.9.8.1005.
S. V. Gordon; R. Brosch; A. Billault; T. Garnier; K. Eiglmeier et al. : Identification of variable regions in the genomes of tubercle bacilli using bacterial artificial chromosome arrays.; Molecular microbiology. 1999. DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01383.x.


P. Westermann; T. Gianzmann; S. Andrejevic; D. R. Braichotte; M. Forrer et al. : Long circulating half-life and high tumor selectivity of the photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin conjugated to polyethylene glycol in nude mice grafted with a human colon carcinoma; International Journal of Cancer. 1998. DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980610)76:6<842::AID-IJC13>3.0.CO;2-4.
S. Andrejevic-Blant; A. Woodtli; G. Wagnieres; C. Fontolliet; H. Van Den Bergh et al. : Interstitial photodynamic therapy with tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin: tumor versus striated muscle damage; International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1998. DOI : 10.1016/S0360-3016(98)00221-1.
R. Brosch; S. V. Gordon; A. Billault; T. Garnier; K. Eiglmeier et al. : Use of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv bacterial artificial chromosome library for genome mapping, sequencing, and comparative genomics; Infection and immunity. 1998.
A. Margot; E. Flaschel; A. Renken : Development of a continuously operated reactor for the limited hydrolysis of whey protein by trypsin; Process Biochemistry. 1998.
M. Schlosser; H. Geneste : The organometallic route to benzylamine type monoamine oxidase inhibitors; Tetrahedron. 1998.


K. Burgess; J. Zhu : Novel vancomycin dimers with activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci; Chemtracts. 1997.


M. Schlosser; D. Michel : About the "physiological size" of fluorine substituents: comparison of sensorially active compounds with fluorine and methyl substituted analogs; Tetrahedron. 1996.
D. Michel; M. Schlosser : (w - 1)-fluoroalk-(w - 1)-enoic acids. Potential fungicides; Synthesis. 1996.

Conference Papers


M. Matasci; V. Bachmann; L. Baldi; D. L. Hacker; M. De Jesus et al. : CHO cell lines generated by PiggyBac transposition. 2011. p. P31. DOI : 10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P31.
X. Perrin; F. Colas; R. Chavarriaga; C. Pradalier; J. d. R. Millán et al. : Learning User Habits for Semi-Autonomous Navigation Using Low Throughput Interfaces. 2011. IEEE Int Conf Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE SMC 2011), Anchorage, Alaska, USA, October 9-12, 2011..


J.-M. Bollon; R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán; P. Bessière : EEG Error-related Potentials Detection with a Bayesian Filter. 2009. p. 702-705. DOI : 10.1109/NER.2009.5109393.
G. Garipelli; R. Chavarriaga; F. Cincotti; F. Babiloni; J. d. R. Millán : Discriminative Channel Selection Method for the Recognition of Anticipation related Potentials from CCD estimated Cortical Activity. 2009. 2009 IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop, Grenoble, France, September 2-4, 2009. p. 375-380.
G. Garipelli; R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán : Anticipation based Brain-Computer Interfacing (aBCI). 2009. 4th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, Antalya, TURKEY, Apr 29-May 02, 2009.


G. Garipelli; F. Galán; R. Chavarriaga; P. W. Ferrez; E. Lew et al. : The use of brain-computer interfacing for ambient intelligence. 2008. AmI07 Workshops, Darmstadt, Germany, November 7-10, 2007. p. 268-285. DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-85379-4.
G. Garipelli; R. Chavarriaga; J. d. R. Millán : Recognition of Anticipatory Behavior from Human EEG. 2008. In proceedings, 4th Intl. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop and Training Course. p. 128-133.
X. Perrin; R. Chavarriaga; C. Ray; R. Siegwart; J. d. R. Millán : A Comparative Psychophysical and EEG Study of Different Feedback Modalities for HRI. 2008. 3rd ACM/IEEE Conf on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI08), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
R. Chavarriaga; F. Galán; J. d. R. Millán : Asynchronous detection and classification of oscillatory brain activity. 2008. 16 European Signal Processing Conference.
R. Chavarriaga; F. Galán; J. Palix; C. Brandner; J. d. R. Millán : EEG-based Recognition of Covert Attentional Shifts. 2008. 6th Forum of European Neuroscience, Geneva, July 2008.
N. Bourdaud; R. Chavarriaga; F. Galán; J. d. R. Millán : Characterizing EEG correlates of exploratory behavior. 2008. 6th Forum of European Neurosciences, Geneva, July 2008.


M. L. Damiani; E. Bertino; B. Catania; P. Perlasca : GEO-RBAC: A spatially aware RBAC. 2007. 10th ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies, Stockholm, SWEDEN, Jun 01-03, 2005. p. -. DOI : 10.1145/1210263.1210265.
R. Chavarriaga; P. W. Ferrez; J. d. R. Millán : To Err Is Human: Learning from Error Potentials in Brain-Computer Interfaces. 2007. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (ICCN 2007).
X. Perrin; R. Chavarriaga; R. Siegwart; J. d. R. Millán : Bayesian Controller for a Novel Semi-Autonomous Navigation Concept. 2007. 3rd European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR 2007), Freiburg, Germany.
F. Galán; J. Palix; R. Chavarriaga; P. W. Ferrez; E. Lew et al. : Visuo-Spatial Attention Frame Recognition for Brain-Computer Interfaces. 2007. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (ICCN 2007), Shanghai, China, Nov 2007.


J. Bonvin; C. Roecker; P. Affolter; A. Muller : SolBac - Flat Roof System and First Installations. 1997.


E. Flaschel; E. R. Andriamboavonjy; A. Renken : Transfer and disproportionation reaction of the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. 1996. p. 45-50.


J. P. Landert; E. Flaschel; A. Renken : A photometric test for the cyclization activity of cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferases. 1982. p. 89-94.


M. Schlosser : Fluoroorganic compounds and their importance in cancer research. 1968. p. 148-54.



S. Balasubramanian / F. M. Wurm; D. Hacker (Dir.) : Study of transposon-mediated cell pool and cell line generation in CHO cells. Lausanne, EPFL, 2015. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-6563.


I. T. Aydin / F. Beermann (Dir.) : Analysis of the Pigment Cell Specific Gene MART-1/Melan-A/mlana. Lausanne, EPFL, 2010. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-4744.


E.-M. Engelhardt / F. Wurm; P. Frey (Dir.) : Studies on scaffold design for tissue engineering applications. Lausanne, EPFL, 2009. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-4445.

Book Chapters


M. Schlosser : The Chemical and Physiological Size of Fluorine; Enantiocontrolled Synthesis of Fluoroorganic Compounds: Stereochemical Challenges and Biomedicinal Targets; Chichester: Wiley, 1999. p. 613-659.



R. Chavarriaga; P. W. Ferrez; J. d. R. Millán : To Err Is Human: Learning from Error Potentials in Brain-Computer Interfaces. 2007.


R. Urbanke; Q. Li : The zero-error capacity region of the 2-User BAC is strictly smaller than its Shannon capacity region. 1996.



A. Marti; N. Lange; M. Zellweger; G. Wagnieres; H. Van Den Bergh et al. ; Solution for diagnosing or treating tissue pathologies. WO9953962 . 1999.

Student Projects


A. Mertenat : Assessment of organic waste availability and suitability for the co-digestion of faecal sludge in Vietnam ; 2014.


S. Gomez : Conception of a biological activated carbon filter for micropollutants removal in wastewater ; 2013.


S. Genser : Comparison of PiggyBac and Tol2 transposon systems as gene delivery tools for recombinant protein production ; 2012.


T. Benavides Damm : Generation of stable cell lines for the production of therapeutic proteins using the Piggy Bac transposon for transgene delivery ; 2010.


D. Lorini : Characterization and Targeting of Forkhead Box K2 (FOXK2) ; 2008.